Wednesday, May 31, 2006

Here are today's Cisco CCNA and CCNP practice questions!

CCNA:

You want your router to resolve unknown console entries via a DNS server located at 100.1.1.1. What is the full global configuration command to do so?

CCNP / BSCI:

The "T" in NAT stands for translation. What might be getting translated? Choose all that apply.

A. IP addresses

B. MAC addresses

C. Port numbers

D. Layer One addresses


CCNP / BCMSN:

Which of the following are true of the collapsed core design?

A. There is no dedicated core switch.

B. There is no dedicated access-layer switch.

C. There is no dedicated distribution-layer switch.

D. The processes of all three layers are performed by a single switch.


Have fun, and I'll see you later tonight with the answers to yesterday's questions!

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
You might know why you have to type in those letters and numbers when you're buying items online or signing up for a free email account - but do you know what they're called and why they work? There's a fascinating article on the free part of the Wall Street Journal online that explains it well. Good reading.

http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB114903737427467003-C_VyvrTBJuk8M1vG2w6fsYAPlwM_20070531.html

Enjoy!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Packet magazine is Cisco's official networking publication, and whether you're climbing the Cisco certification ladder or just want to know more about Cisco products and technologies, you really should be a subscriber!

It costs just a few bucks, and is well worth the price. Learn more about it here:

http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac123/ac114/registernow.html

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Do not follow where the path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and leave a trail.

-- Harold R. McAlindon

Tuesday, May 30, 2006

Here are today's Cisco CCNA and CCNP practice questions. Answers to yesterday's questions will be posted later tonight!

CCNA:

What effect does the following configuration have? Select all that apply.

R2(config-if)# bandwidth 512

A. IGRP and EIGRP's metric calculations will be affected.

B. RIP v1's metric calculations will be affected.

C. RIP v2's metric calculations will be affected.

D. The physical bandwidth of the interface is changed to 512 kbps.

E. The physical bandwidth of the interface is changed to 512 bps.


CCNP / BSCI:

Short answer: What is the default OSPF cost of a 56 kbps link?


CCNP / BCMSN:

Classification and marking of data for QoS purposes should be done at what layer of the Cisco networking model?

A. Access

B. Distribution

C. Core

D. Network

E. Data Link


Enjoy, and I'll see you later tonight!

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
To climb steep hills requires a slow pace at first.

-- William Shakespeare

Monday, May 29, 2006

Here are Monday's CCNA and CCNP practice questions!

CCNA:

Short answer: What's the destination address for a RIPv2 routing update?


CCNP / BSCI:

Short answer: What's the default OSPF cost of an Ethernet interface?


CCNP / BCMSN:

You're configuring dot1x port-based authentication. 802.1x must be configured on which involved devices?

A. The PC and the switch.

B. It's only required on the PC.

C. It's only required on the switch.

D. It's not required on either - dot1x is an internal process.


To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
To all men and women who have served or are serving in the United States Military, please accept this simple message on our Memorial Day:

"Thank you."

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933

Saturday, May 27, 2006

Here are Saturday's CCNA and CCNP practice questions!

CCNA:

Identify the true statements. Choose all that apply.

A. The startup configuration is kept in NVRAM and loads when the router is booted.

B. The startup configuration is the active configuration at all times.

C. The running configuration is kept in NVRAM and loads when the router is booted.

D. The running configuration is the active configuration at all times.

E. The startup configuration and running configuration can be the same config.

F. The startup configuration and running configuration can never been the same config.


CCNP / BSCI:

There are four routers on an OSPF broadcast network. With the default settings, how many of them are listening for packets addressed to 224.0.0.6?


CCNP / BCMSN:

Cisco recommends that you configure Uplinkfast on all switches in what layer?

A. Access

B. Core

C. Distribution

D. All


To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds.

-- Francis Bacon

Friday, May 26, 2006

The thing always happens that you really believe in; and the belief in a thing makes it happen.

-- Frank Lloyd Wright

Thursday, May 25, 2006

Here are the answers to yesterday's Cisco certification practice questions.

CCNA:

You have just hard-coded a router with the OSPF RID 20.20.20.20. What has to be done to make this change take effect?

A. Nothing, since it's a global configuration command.

B. Reload the router or clear the OSPF process.

C. Delete the OSPF process and reconfigure it.

D. Run the command clear ip ospf rid.

Answer: B. To have this command take effect, you must either reload the router or clear the OSPF process by running the command clear ip ospf process.


CCNP / BSCI:

What is RIP's default behavior regarding which update versions to send and accept?

A. Send version 1 and 2, accept version 1.

B. Send version 1, accept version 1 and 2.

C. Send version 1 and 2, accept version 1 and 2.

D. None of the above.

Answer: B. As you can see in the below output of show ip protocols, the RIP default is to send version 1 updates, but to accept both version 1 and 2 updates.

R1#show ip protocols

Routing Protocol is "rip"
Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 23 seconds
Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240
Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Redistributing: rip
Default version control: send version 1, receive any version


CCNP / BCMSN:

Can a switch be configured to open an err-disabled port on its own, with no manual intervention?

A. Nice idea, but nope.

B. Yes, with the errdisable recovery command.

C. Yes, by configuring the switch to reboot during off hours.

D. Yes, with the port autoopen command.

Answer: B. This can be done with the errdisable recovery command, which should be followed by the number of seconds the port should remain in errdisabled state.

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Here are today's CCNA and CCNP practice questions!

CCNA:

You need to configure a distance vector protocol in your network. Not all the routers are Cisco. What is your best choice?

A. RIP

B. RIP or IGRP

C. IGRP

D. RIP, IGRP, or EIGRP

E. IGRP or EIGTP


CCNP / BSCI:

In the following redistribution command, what value is represented by "1544"?

R2(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 metric 1544 100 1 255 1500

A. Delay

B. Bandwidth

C. OSPF cost

D. Link reliability

E. Load

F. MTU


CCNP / BCMSN:

The phrases guaranteed rate and reserved path describe what QoS model?

A. DiffServ

B. Integrated Services

C. FIFO

D. Best effort


To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Computer / IT Analyst Job Future Highly Rated By Money Magazine

Money magazine listed the 50 best jobs in America this past week, and "Computer / IT Analyst" was rated #7 overall. Not bad!

According to Money, "Seems like the entire world is at the mercy of information technology folks, thanks to the rapid spread of computers and swell of the Internet. And all of these jobs pay well, from desktop support to Webmaster to database work." Sounds good to me! They put a little more importance on a college degree than I would personally, but it all depends on the job and the company you're working with or for.

Overall, just another great reason to get certified!

Here's another one, this quote from Dan Rodriguez, CEO of IT staffing firm Veredus:

"...And of course certifications like the MCSE [Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer] are always big. The supply of people who have these skills and credentials is not keeping up with demand."

Source of this quote:
http://money.cnn.com/ , "Where The Tech Jobs Are Now" article on the homepage.

There are several excellent articles on the Money magazine site right now that are very much worth reading as well. Visit them at www.money.com.

So the next time someone starts the same ol' "blah blah blah" about certifications, don't waste your breath arguing with them or your time listening to them. Computer certifications are becoming more and more important every day!

To your success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
To climb steep hills requires a slow pace at first.

-- Shakespeare

Wednesday, May 24, 2006

Here are Wednesday's CCNA and CCNP practice questions. The answers to yesterday's questions will be posted later tonight!

CCNA:

You have just hard-coded a router with the OSPF RID 20.20.20.20. What has to be done to make this change take effect?

A. Nothing, since it's a global configuration command.

B. Reload the router or clear the OSPF process.

C. Delete the OSPF process and reconfigure it.

D. Run the command clear ip ospf rid.


CCNP / BSCI:

What is RIP's default behavior regarding which update versions to send and accept?

A. Send version 1 and 2, accept version 1.

B. Send version 1, accept version 1 and 2.

C. Send version 1 and 2, accept version 1 and 2.

D. None of the above.


CCNP / BCMSN:

Can a switch be configured to open an err-disabled port on its own, with no manual intervention?

A. Nice idea, but nope.

B. Yes, with the errdisable recovery command.

C. Yes, by configuring the switch to reboot during off hours.

D. Yes, with the port autoopen command.

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
I cannot give you the formula for success, but I can give you the formula for failure -- which is: Try to please everybody.

-- Herbert Bayard Swope

Tuesday, May 23, 2006

Here are Tuesday's Cisco CCNA and CCNP practice questions. Answers to yesterday's questions will be posted later this evening!

CCNA:

A trunk port is considered a member of what VLANs by default, if any?

A. The native VLAN.

B. None.

C. All of them.

D. All VLANs configured with the trunk port VLAN member command.


CCNP / BSCI:

You've decided to implement policy routing. At what point(s) on the router will policy routing be enforced?

A. As data is sent out an interface.

B. As data is received on an interface.

C. As data is both sent and received on an interface.

D. During the routing process.


CCNP / BCMSN:

What is the full command to disable a switch port's ability to transmit DTP frames? Short answer, no choices given.

See you later today!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Winning isn't everything, but wanting to win is.

-- Vince Lombardi

Monday, May 22, 2006

Here are the answers to yesterday's Cisco practice questions. I'll have some new questions up later tonight!

CCNA:

In OSPF, what is meant by the term "external route"?

A. A route injected into the OSPF domain by an ABR.

B. A route injected into the OSPF domain by an ASBR.

C. A route to a destination in Area 0.

D. A route that involves a virtual link.

Answer: B. A route learned by the OSPF domain via redistribution is an external route, and the ASBR performs this redistribution.

CCNP / BSCI:

What field in an IP Version 6 address carries subnet information?

A. SLA

B. NSAP

C. NSEL

D. System ID

E. Area ID

Answer: A. The 16-bit Site Level Aggregator (SLA) carries IPv6 subnet information.



CCNP / BCMSN:

What version of Spanning Tree is defined by IEEE 802.1s?

A. MST

B. PVST

C. CST

D. IST

Answer: A. IEEE 802.1s defines Multiple Spanning Tree (MST).


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
If I could sum up what it takes to succeed at Cisco certifications - or anything else - in one sentence, this would be it:

Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal; nothing on earth can help the man with the wrong mental attitude.
-- W.W. Ziege

Sunday, May 21, 2006

Fortune favors the brave.

-- Publius Terence
Here are Sunday's CCNA and CCNP practice questions!

CCNA:

In OSPF, what is meant by the term "external route"?

A. A route injected into the OSPF domain by an ABR.

B. A route injected into the OSPF domain by an ASBR.

C. A route to a destination in Area 0.

D. A route that involves a virtual link.


CCNP / BSCI:

What field in an IP Version 6 address carries subnet information?

A. SLA

B. NSAP

C. NSEL

D. System ID

E. Area ID

CCNP / BCMSN:

What version of Spanning Tree is defined by IEEE 802.1s?

A. MST

B. PVST

C. CST

D. IST


Back later today with the answers to yesterday's questions!

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Saturday, May 20, 2006

The blogging software was down for a while, so here are the answers to Thursday's questions. New questions coming up later today, and beginning today there will be a BCRAN question as well!

CCNA:

Which of the following commands is NOT used on a dialer profile?

A. dialer map

B. ip address

C. encapsulation ppp

D. dialer pool

E. dialer remote-name

Answer: A. A dialer profile is considered a point-to-point interface, and therefore does not use dialer maps.


CCNP / BSCI:

In how many EIGRP tables can a successor be seen?

A. Zero

B. One

C. Two

D. Three

E. Four

Answer: C. The EIGRP successor can be seen in both the route and topology tables.



CCNP / BCMSN:

From a LAN's point of view, what's "transparent" in Transparent LAN Services?

A. The other LANs.

B. The hosts on the local LAN.

C. The WAN.

D. None of the above.

Answer: C. The entire WAN appears as one big LAN to each LAN segment, making the WAN transparent.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Friday, May 19, 2006

Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds.

--- Albert Einstein

Thursday, May 18, 2006

For you CCNA and CCNP candidates, here's a tutorial on EIGRP Stuck In Active, stub routers, and DUAL queries!

EIGRP is a major subject of the CCNA exam, and Cisco goes into even more detail with EIGRP on your CCNP exams. Part of that detail is the purpose and configuration of EIGRP stub routers.


A problem with EIGRP comes in when a successor is lost and there is no feasible successor. DUAL doesn't give up that easily, though. DUAL will mark the route as Active, indicating that the route is being calculated and cannot be used to route data, and will send out a Query message.


A DUAL Query is basically one neighbor asking another, "Hey, do you know how to get to this network I just lost my route to?" If that neighbor has a route, the query will be answered with that route; if the neighbor doesn't have such a route, that neighbor will ask its neighbors. The process continues until a downstream router replies with the desired route, or the EIGRP downstream routers run out of neighbors to ask.


It's a good idea to limit the scope of your DUAL queries, otherwise routes may go into Stuck In Active state during this reconfiguration. Route summarization helps to limit queries, as does configuration of EIGRP stub routers.


While EIGRP does not have the stub area options that OSPF does, EIGRP does allow a router to be configured as stub. This is commonly done with a hub-and-spoke configuration where the spoke routers do not have the resources to keep a full routing table. Since the spoke's next hop will always be the hub, all the spoke really needs is a default route. For this reason, the only neighbor an EIGRP stub router can have is the hub router. (Obviously, the hub would never be configured as stub.)


Configuring EIGRP stub routers also combats the SIA problem. EIGRP stub routers are not queried for routes when the hub does not have a feasible successor for a successor route that has gone down.


By default, EIGRP stub routers advertise information about two types of routes back to the hub - directly connected networks and summary routes. To change this default, use the eigrp stub command followed by the types of routes you want the stub to advertise back to the hub. (The eigrp stub command run by itself configures the router as stub.)


R1(config)#router eigrp 100
R1(config-router)#eigrp stub ?
connected Do advertise connected routes
receive-only Set IP-EIGRP as receive only neighbor
static Do advertise static routes
summary Do advertise summary routes


Assume a network where R5 is the hub and R4, R6, and R7 are spokes. As long as the spokes have a neighbor relationship only with the hub, they can be configured as stub routers. They will then advertise their directly connected networks and summary routes back to the hub and will receive only a default route back from the hub. If R5 loses a successor and has no feasible successor, it will not send a query packet to any of the stub routers.

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Here's a CCNA tutorial on port-based authentication - and it would be a very good idea for you BCRAN candidates to read this as well! :)

To pass your CCNA exam and earn this coveted certification, you must understand the details of port-based authentication. This knowledge has a great deal of value in production networks as well, since this authentication scheme is regularly implemented. Let's take a look at this particular CCNA skill.

Consider a situation where you have a server that will be connected to your switch, and you want the port to shut down if a device with a different MAC address that that of the switch attempts to connect to that port. You could also have a situation where you have someone who has a connection to a switch port in his office, and he wants to make sure that only his laptop can use that port.

Both of these examples are real-world situations, and there are two solutions for each. First, we could create a static MAC entry for that particular switch port. I don't recommend this, mainly because both you and I have better things to do than manage static MAC entries. The better solution is to configure port-based authentication on the switch.

The Cisco switch uses MAC addresses to enforce port security. With port security, only devices with certain MAC addresses can connect to the port successfully. This is another reason source MACs are looked at before the destination MAC is examined. If the source MAC is non-secure and port-based authentication is in effect, the destination does not matter, as the frame will not be forwarded. In essence, the source MAC address serves as the password.


MAC addresses that are allowed to successfully communicate with the switch port are secure MAC addresses. The default number of secure MAC addresses is 1, but a maximum of 132 secure MACs can be configured.

When a non-secure MAC address attempts to communicate with the switch port, one of three actions will occur, depending on the port security mode. In Protect mode, frames with non-secure MAC addresses are dropped. There is no notification that a violation has occurred. The port will continue to switch frames for the secure MAC address.

In Restrict mode, the same action is taken, but a syslog message is logged via SNMP, which is a messaging protocol used by Cisco routers.

In Shutdown mode, the interface goes into error-disabled state, the port LED will go out, and a syslog message is logged. The port has to be manually reopened. Shutdown mode is the default port-security mode.

Port-based authentication is just one of the many switching skills you'll have to demonstrate to earn your CCNA certification. Make sure you know the basics shown here, including the action of each particular mode, and you're on your way to CCNA exam success!

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
It was a high counsel that I once heard given to a young person, "Always do what you are afraid to do."

-- Ralph Waldo Emerson

Wednesday, May 17, 2006

Here are today's Cisco practice questions! The answers to yesterday's questions will be posted later today.

CCNA:

Which of the following commands is NOT used on a dialer profile?

A. dialer map

B. ip address

C. encapsulation ppp

D. dialer pool

E. dialer remote-name


CCNP / BSCI:

In how many EIGRP tables can a successor be seen?

A. Zero

B. One

C. Two

D. Three

E. Four


CCNP / BCMSN:

From a LAN's point of view, what's "transparent" in Transparent LAN Services?

A. The other LANs.

B. The hosts on the local LAN.

C. The WAN.

D. None of the above.


See you later today!

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
Nothing will ever be attempted if all possible objections must first be overcome.

-- Samuel Johnson

Tuesday, May 16, 2006

Here are the answers to yesterday's Cisco certification practice questions!

CCNA:

Which of the following statements is true of Frame Relay LMI? Choose all that apply.

A. The default LMI type is Cisco.

B. The default LMI type is ansi.

C. The default LMI type is dot1q.

D. The LMI must be agreed upon by the DTE and a DCE.

E. The LMI type must be agreed upon by the two DTEs located at the endpoints of the Frame connection.

Answers: A, D. The default LMI type is Cisco, and the LMI must be agreed upon by the DTE and the closest DCE. Run debug frame lmi to see the LMI exchange.



CCNP / BSCI:

Short answer: What is the full command to configure OSPF Area 17 as stub?

The command is simple, but make sure you put it under the OSPF process:

router ospf 1
area 17 stub


CCNP / BCMSN:

Which of the following statements is / are FALSE regarding SPAN? Choose all that apply.

A. A source port can be a source port for multiple sessions.

B. A destination port can be a destination port for multiple sessions.

C. A source port can be part of an Etherchannel.

D. A destination port can be part of an Etherchannel.


Answers: B, D. A destination port can't be the destination port for multiple sessions, and it can't be part of an Etherchannel. Source ports can be the source port for multiple SPAN sessions and can be part of an Etherchannel.

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
To earn your Cisco CCNA certification and pass the BSCI CCNP exam, you have to know your protocol basics like the back of your hand! To help you review these important concepts, here's a quick look at the basics of RIPv1, RIPv2, IGRP, and EIGRP.

RIPv1: Broadcasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. RIPv1 is a classful protocol, and it does not recognize VLSM, nor does it carry subnet masking information in its routing updates. Update contains entire RIP routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Allows equal-cost load-balancing by default. Max hop count is 15. Does not support clear-text or MD5 authentication of routing updates. Updates carry 25 routes maximum.

RIPv2: Multicasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 224.0.0.9. RIPv2 is a classless protocol, allowing the use of subnet masks. Update contains entire RIP routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Allows equal-cost load-balancing by default. Max hop count is 15. Supports clear-text and MD5 authentication of routing updates. Updates carry 25 routes maximum.

IGRP: Broadcasts updates every 90 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol, and is also a classful protocol and does not recognize subnet masking. Update contains entire routing table. Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm. Equal-cost load-balancing on by default; unequal-cost load-sharing can be used with the variance command. Max hop count is 100.

EIGRP: Multicasts full routing table only when an adjacency is first formed. Multicasts updates only when there is a change in the network topology, and then only advertises the change. Multicasts to 224.0.0.10 and allows the use of subnet masks. Uses DUAL routing algorithm. Unequal-cost load-sharing available with the variance command.

By mastering the basics of these protocols, you're laying the foundation for success in the exam room and when working on production networks. Pay attention to the details and the payoff is "CCNA" and "CCNP" behind your name!

To your Cisco certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Here are today's Cisco CCNA and CCNP practice questions!

CCNA:

Which of the following statements is true of Frame Relay LMI? Choose all that apply.

A. The default LMI type is Cisco.

B. The default LMI type is ansi.

C. The default LMI type is dot1q.

D. The LMI must be agreed upon by the DTE and a DCE.

E. The LMI type must be agreed upon by the two DTEs located at the endpoints of the Frame connection.


CCNP / BSCI:

Short answer: What is the full command to configure OSPF Area 17 as stub?


CCNP / BCMSN:

Which of the following statements is / are FALSE regarding SPAN? Choose all that apply.

A. A source port can be a source port for multiple sessions.

B. A destination port can be a destination port for multiple sessions.

C. A source port can be part of an Etherchannel.

D. A destination port can be part of an Etherchannel.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Knowing is not enough; we must apply.

Willing is not enough; we must do.

-- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
All candidates for both the CCNA and BCRAN CCNP exam should read this tutorial!

ISDN is a huge topic on both your Cisco CCNA and BCRAN CCNP exams. While many ISDN topics seem straightforward, it’s the details that make the difference in the exam room and working with ISDN in production networks. Configuring and troubleshooting multilink PPP is just one of the skills you’ll need to pass both of these demanding exams.

With BRI, we've got two B-channels to carry data, and both of them have a 64-kbps capacity. You might think it would be a good idea to have both channels in operation before one reaches capacity, and it is a great idea Problem is, it's not a default behavior of ISDN. The second b-channel will not begin to carry traffic until the first one reaches capacity.

With Multilink PPP (MLP), a bandwidth capacity can be set that will allow the second b-channel to bear data before the first channel reaches capacity. The configuration for MLP is simple, but often misconfigured. We'll use our good friend IOS Help to verify the measurement this command uses.

Enabling MLP is a three-step process:

Enable PPP on the link

Enable MLP with the command ppp multilink

Define the threshold at which the second b-channel should start carrying data with the dialer load-threshold command.

Let's say you wanted the second b-channel to start carrying data when the first channel reaches 75% of capacity. It would make sense that the command to do so would be dialer load-threshold 75... but it's not.

R1(config)#int bri0
R1(config-if)#ppp multilink
R1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold ?
<1-255> Load threshold to place another call

The dialer load-threshold value is based on 255, not 100. To have this command bring the line up at a certain percentage, multiply that percentage by 255. Below, I multiplied 255 by .75 (75%) to arrive at 191.

R1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 ?
either Threshold decision based on max of inbound and outbound traffic
inbound Threshold decision based on inbound traffic only
outbound Threshold decision based on outbound traffic only


R1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 either

As illustrated by IOS Help in the above configuration, dialer load-threshold has additional options as well. You can configure the interface to consider only incoming, outgoing, or all traffic when calculating when to bring the next channel up.

Configuring Multilink PPP is just one of the skills you’ll need to earn your CCNA and pass the CCNP BCRAN exam. Don’t underestimate ISDN on Cisco’s certification exams!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Monday, May 15, 2006

Here are some CCNA and CCNP practice questions to get your brains started up on Monday!

CCNA:

The default priority of an OSPF-enabled interface is what?

A. 0

B. 1

C. 255

D. None of the above.


CCNP / BSCI:

A stub router's OSPF routing table can contain which of the following route types? Choose all that apply.

A. Inter-area routes

B. A default route using the ABR as the next hop

C. Intra-area routes

D. E2 routes

E. E1 routes

F. E0 routes


CCNP / BCMSN:

If inter-VLAN traffic is matched against a VLAN ACL, and no match is found, what action is taken?

A. The traffic is denied.

B. The traffic is permitted.

C. The traffic is filtered.

D. The traffic is flooded.

E. The traffic is sent to the CPU for processing.


Have a great day, and I'll be back later today with more practice questions!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Do not wait to strike till the iron is hot; but make it hot by striking.

-- William B. Sprague

Sunday, May 14, 2006

Here are the answers to yesterday's Cisco practice questions! More questions later tonight!

CCNA:

You're on a tech call with Cisco, and they want to know what the filename is on your router. What command will give you this information?

A. show version

B. show flash

C. show io system

D. show controller serial

E. show ios

Answer: A. show version will display the IOS filename right at the top of the output.

CCNP / BSCI:

You have a transit AS containing 100 BGP speakers. There is an inherent problem with such a configuration. Which of the following solutions requires the least configuration?

A. route reflectors

B. full BGP mesh

C. route aggregation

D. route maps and prefix filtering

The issue presented by such a large AS can be resolved with the use of route reflectors. You could build a full BGP mesh, but that would require a lot of configuration.

CCNP / BCMSN:

Which two of the following port types cannot be dynamically assigned a VLAN membership?

A. port-security enabled ports

B. trunking-enabled ports

C. access ports

D. Fast Ethernet ports

Answer: A, B. Neither a trunk port nor a port enabled with port security can participate in dynamic VLAN assignment.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Saturday, May 13, 2006

Here are some CCNA and CCNP practice questions for you on this fine Saturday!

CCNA:

You're on a tech call with Cisco, and they want to know what the filename is on your router. What command will give you this information?

A. show version

B. show flash

C. show io system

D. show controller serial

E. show ios


CCNP / BSCI:

You have a transit AS containing 100 BGP speakers. There is an inherent problem with such a configuration. Which of the following solutions requires the least configuration?

A. route reflectors

B. full BGP mesh

C. route aggregation

D. route maps and prefix filtering


CCNP / BCMSN:

Which two of the following port types cannot be dynamically assigned a VLAN membership?

A. port-security enabled ports

B. trunking-enabled ports

C. access ports

D. Fast Ethernet ports


Thanks for coming by!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
It is hard to fail, but it is worse never to have tried to succeed.
-- Theodore Roosevelt

Friday, May 12, 2006

Here are some Cisco certification practice questions for you...

CCNA:

You're working on a Cisco router, and you want to see the IP address of the directly connected Cisco devices. Which of the following commands will give you this information? Choose all that apply.

A. show cdp

B. show cdp neighbors

C. show cdp neighbors detail

D. show cdp ip


CCNP / BSCI:

You want to see the contents of any and all route maps applied to interface ethernet0. Which of the following commands will give you this information?

A. show ip policy

B. show interface ethernet0

C. show route maps

D. show route map policy ethernet0


CCNP / BCMSN:

Which two of the following statements are true?

A. RADIUS uses TCP.

B. RADIUS uses UDP.

C. TACACS+ uses TCP.

D. TACACS+ uses UDP.


Have a great weekend! I'll have more study questions and tutorials posted at various times over the weekend.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
A big shot is a little shot that kept shooting.

Thursday, May 11, 2006

Here are the answers to yesterday's practice questions.

CCNA:

What problem does the Cisco feature router on a stick resolve?

A. Multiple devices having the same private IP address.

B. Hosts in one VLAN cannot communicate with hosts in other VLANs.

C. Routers do not forward broadcasts.

D. Switches do not forward broadcasts.

Answer: B. Router on a stick is a solution to the inability of VLANs to send traffic to each other.



CCNP / BSCI:

What combination of hex characters at the beginning of an IPv6 address indicates a broadcast?

A. AA

B. FF

C. 00 (two zeroes)

D. None

Answer: D. IPv6 doesn't use broadcasts. IPv6 traffic is either an anycast, a unicast, or a multicast.


CCNP / BCMSN:

Under what circumstances would you configure Uplinkfast on a root switch?

A. None. Actually, you can't.

B. You want the remote port to open a new connection to the root quickly.

C. You want the root switch's ports to skip the listening and learning states.

D. You want to eliminate all delays on all the root's switch ports regarding STP.

Answer: A. You can't configure Uplinkfast on a root switch. Actually, when you configure Uplinkfast on a nonroot switch, that switch's priority is hiked and port costs raised to prevent that switch from ever becoming the root.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Here are some more CCNA and CCNP practice questions for you. I'll have the answers to yesterday's questions up later this afternoon.

CCNA:

Fill in both blanks.

You want to change the frame relay LMI on a Cisco router from the default of ________ to ansi. The full command to do so is ____________________.


CCNP / BCSI:

The cost of an OSPF E2 route indicates what?

A. The full cost of the path to the destination network.

B. The cost of the path from the ABR to the destination network.

C. The cost of the path from the ASBR to the destination network.

D. The cost of the path from the local router to the ASBR.


CCNP / BCMSN:

What command places a user connecting to a switch via Telnet directly into privileged exec mode?

A. privilege level 15

B. enable

C. login local

D. privilege level 25

E. privilege level 0

F. login

G. This is the default behavior of the switch.


See you later today!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Earning your CCNP certification and passing the BSCI exam depends on knowing the details of many Cisco technologies, ISIS chief among them. To help you prepare for exam success, here's a list of ISIS terminology and basic concepts that will help you pass this tough exam. Enjoy!

ISIS Terms:

Domain: section of the network under common administrative control
Area: logical segment of the network composed of contiguous routers and their data links
Intermediate System: A router.
End System: A host device.

The four levels of ISIS routing:

Level 0: ES-IS routing in the same subnet.
Level 1: IS-IS routing in the same area.
Level 2: IS-IS routing in the same domain.
Level 3: Inter-domain routing performed by InterDomain Routing Protocol (IDRP).

ISIS Adjacency Possibilities:

L1: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area and any L1/L2 in the same area.
L2: Can form adjacency with any L2 in any area, and with an L1/L2 in any area.
L1/L2: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area, L1/L2 in any area, and L2 in any area.

A router interface’s SNPA (Subnetwork Point Of Attachment) is its highest DLCI number if it’s on a Frame network, and its MAC address if the interface is on an Ethernet segment.

ISIS Hello Types:

ESH: ES Hello – Sent by End Systems to discover a router.
ISH: IS Hello – Send by Intermediate Systems to announce their presence. End Systems listen for these.
IIH: IS-to-IS Hello – Send by one IS to be heard by another IS. These hellos makes IS-IS adjacencies possible.

Here's to your CCNP exam success!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Whether you're on the road to the CCNA, CCNP, MCSE, or you're on any other computer certification track, the odds are that sooner or later, you're going to fail an exam. It's happened to almost all of us, yours truly included. What you have to keep in mind in these times is that success is not a straight line. You've probably seen charts showing the growth of an industry or a business -- you know, the ones that go from left to right, and look kind of jagged. The line goes up for a while, then down a bit, then up some more, then down a little.

The key? While every business has its setbacks, the net result is that the line goes up and progress is made. That's how you want your certification pursuit and your career to go as well - upward!

I'm not asking you to be happy about failing an exam. You're allowed to get mad for a few minutes, vow to never take another exam again, and be disappointed. What you're not allowed to do is stay that way.

If you put your books away in a fit of anger, get them out. If you took some time off, it's time to get back to work. Again, there's nothing wrong with being unhappy about failing an exam. It's how you handle that failure that counts. No inventor, executive, or entrepreneur has ever been right 100% of the time. Learn something from your failure. Was your study time quality study time? Did you get some hands-on practice with the technology you're studying? Asking yourself these questions can be tough, but it can be highly valuable in making sure you don't fail the next time. And there must be a next time - because the one thing you cannot do is quit.

Besides, take it from someone who's been there - your temporary failure makes your eventual success that much sweeter.

To your certification success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
It is not the critic who counts,
nor the man who points out how the strong man stumbled,
or where the doer of deeds could have done them better.

The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena,
whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood;
who strives valiantly;who errs and comes short again and again;
who knows great enthusiasms, great devotions;
who spends himself in a worthy cause;
who, at the best, knows in the end the triumph of high achievement,
and who, at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly,
so that his place shall never be with those timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat.

- Theodore Roosevelt

Wednesday, May 10, 2006

Here are some Cisco CCNA and CCNP practice questions to get you started today!

CCNA:

What problem does the Cisco feature router on a stick resolve?

A. Multiple devices having the same private IP address.

B. Hosts in one VLAN cannot communicate with hosts in other VLANs.

C. Routers do not forward broadcasts.

D. Switches do not forward broadcasts.


CCNP / BSCI:

What combination of hex characters at the beginning of an IPv6 address indicates a broadcast?

A. AA

B. FF

C. 00 (two zeroes)

D. None


CCNP / BCMSN:

Under what circumstances would you configure Uplinkfast on a root switch?

A. None. Actually, you can't.

B. You want the remote port to open a new connection to the root quickly.

C. You want the root switch's ports to skip the listening and learning states.

D. You want to eliminate all delays on all the root's switch ports regarding STP.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Tuesday, May 09, 2006

Here are the answers to yesterday's practice questions. More questions to come later tonight!

CCNA:

You want to cut in half the number of paths RIP uses by default for equal-cost load-sharing. What command will do this? Short answer, no choices given!

The default is 4 paths; the command needed here is maximum-paths 2.

CCNP / BSCI:

A BGP router has two possible paths to a remote destination. The weights are unchanged from the default. What is the next deciding factor?

A. LOCAL_PREF, with the highest value preferred.

B. LOCAL_PREF, with the lowest value preferred.

C. AS_PATH, with the shortest value preferred.

D. AS_PATH, with the longest value preferred.

Answer: A. If the weights are the same, the next path selection attribute to be considered is LOCAL_PREF, with the highest being preferred.


CCNP / BCMSN:

Where does a VMPS server keep its MAC address database?

A. On a TFTP server.

B. In its ROM.

C. In its RAM.

D. In its NVRAM.

Answer: A. The VMPS device keeps its MAC address database on a TFTP server.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
An Introduction To BGP

Like TCP, BGP is connection-oriented. An underlying connection between two BGP speakers is established before any routing information is exchanged. This connection takes place on TCP port 179. As with EIGRP and OSPF, keepalive messages are sent out by the BGP speakers in order to keep this relationship alive.

Once the connection is established, the BGP speakers exchange routes and synchronize their tables. After this initial exchange, a BGP speaker will only send further updates upon a change in the network topology.

The IGP protocols that use Autonomous Systems, IGRP and EIGRP, require prospective neighbors to be in the same AS. This is not true with BGP. Routers can be in different Autonomous Systems and still exchange routes. The BGP neighbors do not have to be directly connected, and often are not, but do need to be able to reach the IP addresses they use in their neighbor statements.

A BGP peer that is in the same AS is referred to as an Internal BGP (iBGP) Peer, where a BGP peer in another AS is an External BGP (eBGP) Peer.

A sample iBGP configuration:

Router bgp 100
Neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 100


A sample eBGP configuration:

Router bgp 100
Neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 200

Cisco recommends that eBGP peers be directly connected, where iBGP peers generally will not be.

Before we get too much farther into BGP theory, let’s get a configuration started. You’ll use the router bgp command to configure a router as a BGP speaker. Right after that, the neighbor command will be used to identify this BGP speaker’s potential neighbors. (The terms "peer" and "neighbor" are interchangeable in BGP, but it's the neighbor statement that is used to statically define neighbors. BGP is not capable of discovering neighbors dynamically.)

R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.3 remote-as 200

While almost all of the neighbor options are just that -- optional -- you do have to specify the BGP AS of the remote router. BGP has no mechanism to dynamically discover neighbors. Remember, BGP speakers do not have to be in the same AS to become peers. To verify that the remote BGP speaker has become a peer, run show ip bgp neighbor.

R1#show ip bgp neighbor
BGP neighbor is 172.12.123.3, remote AS 200, external link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.0
BGP state = Active
Last read 00:01:39, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
Received 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue
Sent 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue
Route refresh request: received 0, sent 0
Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds

The output here can be a little misleading the first time you read it. The first highlighted line shows 172.12.123.3 is a BGP neighbor, is located in AS 200, and is an external link, indicating that the neighbor is in another AS entirely. The second highlighted line shows the BGP state as Active. This sounds great, but it actually means that a BGP peer connection does not yet exist with the prospective neighbor.

So even though the show ip bgp neighbor output indicated that this is an Active neighbor relationship, that’s not as good as it sounds. Of course, the reason the peer relationship hasn’t been established is that we haven’t configured R3 yet!

R3(config)#router bgp 200R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 remote-as 100

Verify the peer establishment with show ip bgp neighbor:

R3#show ip bgp neighbor
BGP neighbor is 172.12.123.1, remote AS 100, external link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 172.12.123.1
BGP state = Established, up for 00:01:18
Last read 00:00:17, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
Local host: 172.12.123.3, Local port: 179 (BGP uses TCP Port 179)
Foreign host: 172.12.123.1, Foreign port: 11007
The peer relationship between R1 and R3 has been established.

Now that you know how the neighbor relationship itself is built, you need to start learning the many options of the neighbor command. You’ll have to master these to become a CCNP and CCIE!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Imagine this. You have an appointment with a client to work on a server or router install. A few minutes before you're scheduled to be there, you decide there's something really good on TV you'd like to watch. Or you decide to go to the gym, or play a game, or do anything else except go see the client.

Even if you weren't going to get fired for not showing up, it's certainly unfair to the client. You've got a professional obligation, and you should be there on time.

Now, what's this got to do with you becoming a CCNA or CCNP? Plenty. Because when it comes to your study time, you're the client. You owe it to yourself to show up. You would never blow off an appointment to meet a client to get some important work done.

First, though, you have to make that appointment with yourself! Schedule your CCNA / CCNP study time, and keep that appointment as you would with a client. Turn off the TV, your cell, your iPod, and everything else electronic that you carry around. Believe it or not, the world can survive with being in contact with you for an hour or so! You might even like it!

Getting certified isn't about how many hours, days, or weeks you spend studying. It's about how much quality time you put in. Be honest with yourself and realize that you're better off with 45 minutes of uninterrupted study as you would be with three hours of constantly interrupted study.

Don't blow off an appointment to yourself, either. Schedule the time, be there on time, get your study done, and you're one step closer to your CCNA and CCNP!
It is a psychological law that whatever we wish to accomplish, we must impress on the subjective or subconscious mind.
-- Orison Swett Marden

And the best way to to that is to write both your personal and professional goals out on paper - daily. To live the life you want, you gotta have a map first!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Monday, May 08, 2006

CCNA Certification Exam Review: Distance Vector Protocol Commands

Part of studying for CCNA exam success is keeping all these new commands straight in your head! And let's face it, there are a lot of commands you need to know in order to pass the CCNA exam and earn that certification. Here's a review of some very important distance vector and static routing commands you need to know, along with their proper usage and console output.

Bandwidth

IGRP makes a default assumption that any Serial interface running IGRP is connected to a T1 line, which runs at 1544 KBPS. With equal-cost load-balancing enabled by default, this may be an undesirable assumption.

To alter IGRP’s assumption, use the bandwidth command on the serial interface in question. Note that this command does NOT actually affect the bandwidth available to the interface; it merely changes IGRP’s assumption of the bandwidth.

R2#conf t
R2(config)#int s0
R2(config-if)#bandwidth 512



Clear ip route *


This command clears your routing table of all non-static and non-connected routes. In a lab environment, it’s very handy because it forces your routers running routing protocols to send and request updates, rather than waiting for the regularly scheduled updates.

Debug ip igrp events

Debug ip igrp events allows you to see IGRP updates being sent and requested. Here, the debug is run and then the routing table is cleared. The router immediately broadcasts update requests via the IGRP-enabled interfaces.

R2#debug ip igrp events
IGRP event debugging is on
R2#clear ip route *
06:02:51: IGRP: broadcasting request on BRI0
06:02:51: IGRP: broadcasting request on Serial0.123


Debug ip igrp transactions

To configure IGRP unequal-cost load-sharing with the variance command, you’ve got to know the metric of the less-desirable routes. EIGRP keeps these in its topology table; IGRP has no such table.

To get the metrics of routes not in the routing table, run debug ip igrp transactions. To force IGRP updates, the routing table below was cleared with clear ip route *.

R2#debug ip igrp transactions
IGRP protocol debugging is on


R2#clear ip route *
06:05:33: IGRP: received update from 172.12.123.1 on Serial0.123
06:05:33: subnet 172.12.123.0, metric 10476 (neighbor 8476)
06:05:33: network 1.0.0.0, metric 8976 (neighbor 501)
06:05:33: IGRP: edition is now 3
06:05:33: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via BRI0 (172.12.12.2)
06:05:33: network 1.0.0.0, metric=8976
06:05:33: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial0.123 (172.12.123.2) - suppressing null update

06:05:34: IGRP: received update from 172.12.12.1 on BRI0
06:05:34: subnet 172.12.13.0, metric 160250 (neighbor 8476)
06:05:34: network 1.0.0.0, metric 158750 (neighbor 501)


Debug ip rip

Run debug ip rip to troubleshoot routing update problems, RIP authentication problems, and to view the routing update contents. Clear ip route * was run to clear the routing table and to force a RIP update.

R2#debug ip rip
RIP protocol debugging is on


R2#clear ip route *
6:14:53: RIP: received v2 update from 172.23.23.3 on Ethernet0
6:14:53: 1.0.0.0/8 via 0.0.0.0 in 16 hops (inaccessible)
6:14:53: 1.1.1.1/32 via 0.0.0.0 in 2 hops
6:14:53: 172.12.0.0/16 via 0.0.0.0 in 16 hops (inaccessible)
6:14:53: 172.12.12.2/32 via 0.0.0.0 in 2 hops
6:14:53: 172.12.13.0/30 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops
6:14:53: 172.12.123.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops
6:14:53: 172.23.0.0/16 via 0.0.0.0 in 16 hops (inaccessible)


Ip route

To configure a static route to a given destination IP address, use the ip route command. The destination is followed by a subnet mask, and that can be followed by either the next-hop IP address or the exit interface on the local router.

R2#conf t
R2(config)#ip route 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 172.12.123.1
OR
R2(config)#ip route 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 serial0

Ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

To configure a default static route, use either of these two commands.

R2#conf t
R2(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.12.123.1
OR
R2(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 ethernet0


You could have any number for the first “0.0.0.0", since the second set of zeroes is the subnet mask. This means that any destination will match this route statement.

That's a good review to get started with! Look for future installments of this CCNA exam command review!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Here are some CCNA and CCNP practice questions to get you going!

CCNA:

You want to cut in half the number of paths RIP uses by default for equal-cost load-sharing. What command will do this? Short answer, no choices given!

CCNP / BSCI:

A BGP router has two possible paths to a remote destination. The weights are unchanged from the default. What is the next deciding factor?

A. LOCAL_PREF, with the highest value preferred.

B. LOCAL_PREF, with the lowest value preferred.

C. AS_PATH, with the shortest value preferred.

D. AS_PATH, with the longest value preferred.


CCNP / BCMSN:

Where does a VMPS server keep its MAC address database?

A. On a TFTP server.

B. In its ROM.

C. In its RAM.

D. In its NVRAM.


Thanks for reading!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
When you're studying for the BSCI exam on the way to earning your CCNP certification, it's safe to say that BGP is like nothing you’ve studied to this point. BGP is an external routing protocol used primarily by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Unless you work for an ISP today or in the future, you may have little or no prior exposure to BGP. Understanding BGP is a great addition to your skill set – and you have to know the basics well to pass the BSCI exam.

Note that I said “the basics”. BGP is a very complex protocol, and when you pursue your CCIE, you’ll see what I’m talking about. As with all things Cisco, though, when broken down into smaller pieces, BGP becomes quite understandable. You will need to know the basics of BGP as presented in this chapter to pass your BSCI exam – so let’s get started.

BGP Defined:

“An Internet protocol that enables groups of routers (called autonomous systems) to share routing information so that efficient, loop-free routes can be established. BGP is commonly used within and between Internet Service Providers (ISPs).”

There are a couple of terms in there that apply to the protocols you’ve mastered so far in your studies. The term “autonomous system” applies to IGRP and EIGRP as well as BGP; you’ll be indicating a BGP AS in your configurations just as you did with IGRP and EIGRP. And we’re always looking for efficient, loop-free routes, right? As it did with IGRP and EIGRP, "autonomous system" simply refers to a group of routers that is managed by a single administrative body. An autonomous system will use an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) such as OSPF or EIGRP to route packets inside the AS; outside the AS, an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) such as BGP will be used.

BGP shares some characteristics with some routing protocols you’ve already studied. BGP supports VLSM, summarization, and CIDR. Like EIGRP, BGP will send full updates when two routers initially become neighbors and will send only partial updates after that. BGP does create and maintain neighbor relationships before exchanging routes, and keepalives are sent to keep this relationship alive.

BGP has some major differences from the IGPs we’ve studied to this point. You’ll hear BGP referred to as a path-vector protocol. As opposed to distance-vector protocols that exchange relatively simple information about available routes, BGP routers will exchange extensive information about networks to allow the routers to make more intelligent routing decisions. This additional BGP path information comes in the form of attributes, and these path attributes are contained in the updates sent by BGP routers. Attributes themselves are broken up into two classes, well-known and optional.

BGP also keeps a routing table separate from the IP routing table.

There are some BGP attribute tutorials on the website. In the meantime, happy studying!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
To pass the BCMSN exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to know HSRP inside and out! Part of that is knowing how the MAC address of the virtual router is derived, and another part is knowing how to change this address. We'll look at both features in this tutorial.

We've got two routers on a segment running HSRP, so first we need to find out what the MAC address of the HSRP virtual router is. The show command for HSRP is show standby, and it's the first command you should run while configuring and troubleshooting HSRP. Let's run it on both routers and compare results.

R2#show standbyEthernet0 - Group 5
Local state is Standby, priority 100
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 0.776
Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured
Active router is 172.12.23.3, priority 100 expires in 9.568
Standby router is local 1 state changes, last state change 00:00:22

R3#show standbyEthernet0 - Group 5
Local state is Active, priority 100
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 2.592
Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured
Active router is local
Standby router is 172.12.23.2 expires in 8.020
Virtual mac address is 0000.0c07.ac05
2 state changes, last state change 00:02:08

R3 is in Active state, while R2 is in Standby. The hosts are using the 172.12.123.10 address as their gateway, but R3 is actually handling the workload. R2 will take over if R3 becomes unavailable.

An IP address was statically assigned to the virtual router, but not a MAC address. However, there is a MAC address under the show standby output on R3, the active router. How did the HSRP process arrive at a MAC of 00-00-0c-07-ac-05?

Well, most of the work is already done before the configuration is even begun. The MAC address 00-00-0c-07-ac-xx is reserved for HSRP, and xx is the group number in hexadecimal. That's a good skill to have for the exam, so make sure you're comfortable with hex conversions. The group number is 5, which is expressed as 05 with a two-bit hex character. If the group number had been 17, we'd see 11 at the end of the MAC address - one unit of 16, one unit of 1.

On rare occasions, you may have to change the MAC address assigned to the virtual router. This is done with the standby mac-address command. Just make sure you're not duplicating a MAC address that's already on your network!

R2(config-if)#standby 5 mac-address 0000.1111.2222

1d12h: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: Ethernet0 Group 5 state Active -> Learn

R2#show standby
Ethernet0 - Group 5
Local state is Active, priority 150, may preempt
Hellotime 4 sec, holdtime 12 sec
Next hello sent in 3.476
Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured
Active router is local
Standby router is 172.12.23.3 expires in 10.204
Virtual mac address is 0000.1111.2222 configured
4 state changes, last state change 00:00:00

1d12h: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: Ethernet0 Group 5 state Listen -> Active

The MAC address will take a few seconds to change, and the HSRP routers will go into Learn state for that time period.

A real-world HSRP troubleshooting note: If you see constant state changes with your HSRP configuration, do what you should always do when troubleshooting - check the physical layer first.

Best of luck on your BCMSN exam!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933

Sunday, May 07, 2006

Here are the answers to yesterday's practice questions. Look for new questions and some brand new articles and tutorials on Monday !

CCNA:

Short answer: In seconds, what's the default value of the dialer idle-timeout command?

The default is 120 seconds.

CCNP / BSCI:

What LSA type is generated by an ABR and describes inter-area links?

A. Type 1

B. Type 2

C. Type 3

D. Type 4

E. Type 5

F. Type 6

G. Type 7

Answer: That's a Type 3 LSA.

CCNP / BCMSN:

What type of frames pass through the tunnel built by the "l2 protocol-tunnel" command?

A. Network control traffic

B. IP frames

C. All data frames

D. All data frames and network control traffic

The L2 frame carries network control traffic, namely STP, CDP, and VTP. Those three protocols will not have their frames sent through a dot1q tunnel.

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Saturday, May 06, 2006

Good morning!

Here are some practice questions to get your brain started on this fine Saturday!

CCNA:

Short answer: In seconds, what's the default value of the dialer idle-timeout command?

CCNP / BSCI:

What LSA type is generated by an ABR and describes inter-area links?

A. Type 1

B. Type 2

C. Type 3

D. Type 4

E. Type 5

F. Type 6

G. Type 7


CCNP / BCMSN:

What type of frames pass through the tunnel built by the "l2 protocol-tunnel" command?

A. Network control traffic

B. IP frames

C. All data frames

D. All data frames and network control traffic


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Friday, May 05, 2006

For those of you who have been waiting patiently for my new BCMSN Study Package -- wait no longer! It's now available on the website!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
There is no road too long to the man who advances deliberately and without undue haste; there are no honors too distant to the man who prepares for them with patience.

-- Jean De La Bruyere
For the many of you who have asked, my BCMSN Ultimate Study Package will be released later today! Keep watching the website!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Thursday, May 04, 2006

Here are the answers to yesterday's Cisco practice questions!

CCNA:

Which of the following fields do TCP and UDP headers have in common? Choose all that apply.

A. Source IP address

B. Destination IP address

C. Source MAC address

D. Destination MAC address

E. Source Port

F. Destination Port

G. Urgent Pointer

H. Checksum

Answer: E, F, H.


CCNP / BSCI:

Which of the following is true regarding the expression of IPv6 addresses?

A. There is no limit on zero compression usage.

B. There is no limit on leading zero compression usage.

C. There is a limit on zero compression usage.

D. There is a limit on leading zero compression usage.

Answers: B, C. Zero compression can be used only once in an IPv6 address expression, but leading zero compression can be used as many times as needed.

CCNP / BCMSN:

What protocol does a switch use to inform an IP Phone of CoS information?

A. UDP

B. TCP

C. CDP

D. IP

E. IPX

F. OSPF

Answer: C. The switch will use CDP for this communication, so CDP must be enabled on the port leading to the IP Phone.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
BSCI Exam Review - Distance Vector Protocols And IP Routing

To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to keep a lot of details in mind. It's easy to overlook the "simpler" protocols and services such as static routing and distance vector protocols. With this in mind, here's a quick review of some details you should know for success in the exam room and real-world networks!

When packets need to be routed, the routing table is parsed for the longest prefix match if multiple paths exist with the same prefix length, the route with the lowest AD is preferred. If there are still multiple valid paths, equal-cost load-sharing goes into effect.

The ip route command is used to create static routes the command ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 <> creates a default static route.

A static route with a next-hop IP address has an AD of one, while a static route with a local exit interface has an AD of zero.

A floating static route is a static route with an AD higher than that of the dynamic routing protocols running on the router, ensuring that the static route can only be used if the routing protocol goes down.

On-Demand Routing (ODR) is only appropriate in a hub-and-spoke network. The spokes effectively become stub routers. ODR uses Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) to send route information.

To propagate a default route with IP routing, use the ip default-network command. To do so with IP routing disabled, use ip default-gateway. You can also redistribute a static route into most protocols, but not IGRP. IGRP does not understand a static route to 0.0.0.0.

The ip helper-address command takes certain broadcasts and translates then into unicasts in order to allow the router to forward them. These default ports are:

TIME, port 37
TACACS, port 49
DNS, port 53
BOOTP/DHCP Server, port 67
BOOTP/DHCP Client, port 68
TFTP, port 69
NetBIOS name service, port 137
NetBIOS datagram services, port 138

To name other ports, use the ip forward-protocol command. To remove any of these ports from the default list, use the no ip forward-protocol command.

ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) hosts hear multicast Hellos from routers, allowing host-router discovery. HSRP routers create a virtual router that hosts think is a real router. Both protocols help networks cut over to a functional router quickly when their primary router goes down.


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
"I have always found that if I move with 75 percent or more of the facts, I usually never regret it. It's the guys who wait to have everything perfect that drive you crazy." - Lee Iacocca
CCNP BCMSN Exam Tutorial: HSRP And The Priority Command

(My BCMSN Ultimate Study Package comes out tomorrow! End of plug! ;) )

To pass the BCMSN exam and earn your CCNP certification, you've got to know HSRP inside and out. While the operation and basic commands of HSRP are pretty simple, there are some important details that are easily overlooked but are vital in getting HSRP to work the way you want it to. Let's take a look at using the priority command correctly on both the exam and in production networks.

A key value in the show standby command is the priority. The default is 100, and the router with the highest priority will be the primary HSRP router. We'll raise the default priority on R2 and see the results. R3 is currently the Active router and R2 the standby, so let's raise the priority on R2 and see what happens.

R2(config)#interface ethernet0
R2(config-if)#standby 5 priority 150
R2#show standby
Ethernet0 - Group 5
Local state is Standby, priority 150
Hellotime 4 sec, holdtime 12 sec
Next hello sent in 0.896
Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured
Active router is 172.12.23.3, priority 100 expires in 8.072
Standby router is local
1 state changes, last state change 00:14:24

R2 now has a higher priority, but R3 is still the active router. R2 will not take over as the HSRP primary until R3 goes down - OR the preempt option is configured on R2.

R2(config-if)#standby 5 priority 150 preempt
1d11h: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: Ethernet0 Group 5 state Standby -> Active
R2#show standby
Ethernet0 - Group 5
Local state is Active, priority 150, may preempt
Hellotime 4 sec, holdtime 12 sec
Next hello sent in 1.844
Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured
Active router is local
Standby router is 172.12.23.3 expires in 10.204
Virtual mac address is 0000.0c07.ac05
2 state changes, last state change 00:00:13

In just a few seconds, a message appears that the local state has changed from standby to active. Show standby confirms that R2, the local router, is now the active router - the primary. R3 is now the standby. So if anyone tells you that you have to take a router down to change the Active router, they're wrong - you just have to use the preempt option on the standby priority command.

Another vital part of HSRP configurations is knowing how to change the MAC address of the virtual router, as well as interface tracking. We'll look at those features in the next part of my HSRP tutorial!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Not only is your CCNA exam going to have questions on VLAN trunking protocol, almost any network that has more than one VLAN is going to have VTP running. Whether you're planning on passing the CCNA exam or just brushing up on your networking skills, this VTP tutorial will help you learn the basics of this important protocol.

VTP allows switches to advertise VLAN information between other members of the same VTP domain. VTP allows a consistent view of the switched network across all switches. When a VLAN is created on one switch in a VTP server, all other VTP devices in the domain are notified of that VLAN’s existence. VTP servers will know about every VLAN, even VLANs that have no members on that switch.

Switches run VTP in one of three modes. In server mode, VLANs can be created, modified, and deleted on a VTP server. When these actions are taken, the changes are advertised to all switches in the VTP domain. VTP Servers keep VLAN configuration information upon reboot.
In client mode, the switch cannot modify, create, or delete VLANs. VTP clients cannot retain VLAN configuration information upon reboot; they have to obtain this information from a VTP server.

In real-world networks, this is generally done to centralize the creation and deletion of VLANs. An interesting side effect of the server/client methodology is that if a VLAN is only to have ports on the VTP client switch, the VLAN must still first be created on the VTP server. The VTP client will learn about the VLAN from the VTP server, and ports can then be placed into that VLAN.

The third VTP mode is transparent mode. VTP switches in this mode ignore VTP messages. They do forward the VTP advertisements received from other switches. VLANs can be created, deleted, and modified on a transparent server, but those changes are not advertised to the other switches in the VTP domain.

For switches running VTP to successfully exchange VLAN information, three things have to happen. I've listed them for you in the order that you'll see them in the real world.

1. The VTP domain name must match. This is case-sensitive. "CISCO" and "cisco" are two different domains.

2. To distribute information about a newly-created VLAN, the switch upon which that VLAN is created must be in Server mode.

Learning VTP isn't just a good idea for passing your CCNA exams, it's a skill you must have to be effective in configuring and troubleshooting VLANs. I wish you the best in both of these pursuits!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Wednesday, May 03, 2006

Here are today's free CCNA and CCNP practice questions !

CCNA:

Which of the following fields do TCP and UDP headers have in common? Choose all that apply.

A. Source IP address

B. Destination IP address

C. Source MAC address

D. Destination MAC address

E. Source Port

F. Destination Port

G. Urgent Pointer

H. Checksum


CCNP / BSCI:

Which of the following is true regarding the expression of IPv6 addresses?

A. There is no limit on zero compression usage.

B. There is no limit on leading zero compression usage.

C. There is a limit on zero compression usage.

D. There is a limit on leading zero compression usage.


CCNP / BCMSN:

What protocol does a switch use to inform an IP Phone of CoS information?

A. UDP

B. TCP

C. CDP

D. IP

E. IPX

F. OSPF


See you tomorrow with the answers and some new articles!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Here are the answers to yesterday's Cisco CCNA / CCNP practice questions. New questions coming later tonight!

CCNA:

By default, how many paths does RIP use for unequal-cost load-sharing?

A. zero

B. 1

C. 2

D. 3

E. 4

Answer: A. RIP uses four paths for equal-cost load-sharing by default, but no paths for unequal-cost sharing.




CCNP / BSCI:What routes are redistributed automatically by an OSPF Autonomous System Border Router?

A. None.

B. Any OSPF routes from local processes.

C. Any static routes.

D. Any default static route.

E. The route to Null0.

ANSWER: A. OSPF ASBRs are routers performing redistribution into the OSPF domain, but no routes are automatically redistributed by it.


CCNP / BCMSN:Short Answer: What's the default port cost of a 10 MBPS port on a Cisco switch?

Answer: 100.

10 MBPS Port: Originally 100, still 100
100 MBPS Port: Originally 10, now 19
1 GBPS Port: Originally 1, now 4
10 GBPS Port: Originally 1, now 2

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

Tuesday, May 02, 2006

Here are the answer to yesterday's CCNA / CCNP practice questions.

CCNA:

How many valid host IP addresses exist on the 221.10.89.0 255.255.255.248 subnet?

Answer: Six. This is a Class C network, with a network mask of 255.255.255.0 (/24). Comparing the network and subnet masks in binary shows that there are 5 subnet bits and 3 host bits. Using the formula [ (2 to the nth power) - 2 ] to determine the number of valid host addresses, there are six valid addresses on this subnet.

CCNP / BSCI:

There are four routers on an OSPF broadcast network segment. If all OSPF settings are at their default, how many DROTHERS will be on the segment?

Answer: There will be one DR, one BDR, and two DROTHERS - routers that are neither the DR nor the BDR.


CCNP / BCMSN:

What's the name for the network design where the core switches are also the distribution switches?

This is a collapsed core network design.

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Here are today's Cisco CCNA / CCNP practice questions !

CCNA:

By default, how many paths does RIP use for unequal-cost load-sharing?

A. zero

B. 1

C. 2

D. 3

E. 4


CCNP / BSCI:

What routes are redistributed automatically by an OSPF Autonomous System Border Router?

A. None.

B. Any OSPF routes from local processes.

C. Any static routes.

D. Any default static route.

E. The route to Null0.


CCNP / BCMSN:

Short Answer: What's the default port cost of a 10 MBPS port on a Cisco switch?


Study hard!

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
".... Chance only favors the mind that is prepared." -- Louis Pasteur

Monday, May 01, 2006

Here are Monday's CCNA / CCNP practice questions. They're all short answer today, no multiple choice. Enjoy!

CCNA:

How many valid host IP addresses exist on the 221.10.89.0 255.255.255.248 subnet?

CCNP / BSCI:

There are four routers on an OSPF broadcast network segment. If all OSPF settings are at their default, how many DROTHERS will be on the segment?


CCNP / BCMSN:

What's the name for the network design where the core switches are also the distribution switches?


To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
Here are Monday's CCNA / CCNP Practice Questions!

CCNA:

Given the network number 130.245.0.0, what subnet mask will result in at least 250 valid hosts per subnet, but between 50 and 60 valid subnets?

(No choices for this question. You shouldn't need them! :) )

CCNP / BSCI:

What are BGP's well-known mandatory attributes?

A. AS_PATH

B. origin

C. LOCAL_PREF

D. atomic aggregate

E. next-hop

F. aggregator

G. community


CCNP / BCMSN:

What switching service will shut a port down if that port receives a BPDU?

A. Portfast

B. Uplinkfast

C. Root Guard

D. Port Guard

E. BPDU Skew Detection

F. Backbonefast


Enjoy, and I'll post the answers on Tuesday.

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
It looks like the blogger software didn't post the answer to last Wednesday's questions, so here they are!

CCNA:

Identify the three locations where a router can locate an IOS image during the boot process.

A. Flash

B. TFTP Server

C. FTP Server

D. ROM

E. RAM

F. NVRAM

G. A laptop configured as an IOS Server.

Answer: A, B, D. The order is Flash, TFTP Server, ROM.



CCNP / BSCI:

One effect of configuring a router as an EIGRP Stub is to prevent it from receiving what kind of traffic?

A. LSAs

B. Hellos

C. DUAL Queries

D. Acks

E. Joins

Answer: C. Configuring a spoke router as an EIGRP stub means the hub will not send it DUAL Query packets. I mention hub and spoke routers because that's where you would use EIGRP stub routing.



CCNP / BCMSN

In a multilayer switch, what holds the routing information?

A. The route cache

B. The Attribute Table

C. The MAC Mapping Table

D. The Forwarding Information Base

E. The Adjacency Table

Answer: D. The FIB holds the routing table's information, in a different format than that of the routing table.

To your Cisco success,

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
For those of you working on your CCNA, don't forget to learn the switching modes and the differences between the two. Here's a tutorial to help you out.

To pass the CCNA exam and earn this important certification, you’ve got to know switching inside and out. While you’re learning all the basic switching theory, make sure to spend some time with the one of three switching modes Cisco routers can use.

Store-and-Forward is exactly what it sounds like. The entire frame will be stored before it is forwarded. This mode allows for the greatest amount of error checking, since a CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is run against the frame before it is forwarded. If the frame contains an error, it is discarded. If there’s no problem with the frame, the frame is then forwarded to its proper destination.

While store-and-forward does perform error checking, the delay in processing the frame while this error check is run results in higher latency than the other modes you’re about to read about. The latency time can also vary, since not all frames are the same size.

Cut-through switching copies only the destination MAC address into its memory before beginning to forward the frame. Since the frame is being forwarded as soon as the destination MAC is read, there is less latency than store-and-forward. The drawback is that there is no error checking.

There is a middle ground, fragment-free switching. Only part of the frame is copied to memory before it is forwarded, but it’s the first 64 bytes of the frame, not just the destination MAC. (Why? Because if there is a problem with the frame, it’s most likely in the first 64 bytes.) There is a little more error checking than cut-through, but not as much latency as with store-and-forward.

Note that the latency of both cut-through and fragment-free is fixed; these modes always look at the first six or 64 bytes, respectively. Store-and-forward's latency depends on the size of the frame.Learning the similarities and differences between these modes is an often-overlooked part of CCNA studies. Spend some time studying this important CCNA topic – you’ll be glad you did!

Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com
For those of you studying for the CCNA, BSCI, or BCMSN exams, here's a tutorial on HSRP MAC addresses and timers. Enjoy!

While the operation of HSRP is quite simple (and covered in a previous tutorial), you also need to know how HSRP arrives at the MAC address for the virtual router - as well as how to configure a new MAC for this virtual router. This puts us in the unusual position of creating a physical address for a router that doesn't exist!

The output of show standby for a two-router HSRP configuration is shown below.

R2#show standby
Ethernet0 - Group 5
Local state is Standby, priority 100
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 0.776
Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured
Active router is 172.12.23.3, priority 100 expires in 9.568
Standby router is local
1 state changes, last state change 00:00:22

R3#show standby
Ethernet0 - Group 5
Local state is Active, priority 100
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 2.592
Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured
Active router is local
Standby router is 172.12.23.2 expires in 8.020
Virtual mac address is 0000.0c07.ac05
2 state changes, last state change 00:02:08

R3 is in Active state, while R2 is in Standby. The hosts are using the 172.12.123.10 address as their gateway, but R3 is actually handling the workload. R2 will take over if R3 becomes unavailable.

An IP address was assigned to the virtual router during the HSRP configuration process, but not a MAC address. However, there is a MAC address under the show standby output on R3, the active router. How did the HSRP process arrive at a MAC of 00-00-0c-07-ac-05?

Well, most of the work is already done before the configuration is even begun. The MAC address 00-00-0c-07-ac-xx is reserved for HSRP, and xx is the group number in hexadecimal. That's a good skill to have for the exam, so make sure you're comfortable with hex conversions. The group number is 5, which is expressed as 05 with a two-bit hex character. If the group number had been 17, we'd see 11 at the end of the MAC address - one unit of 16, one unit of 1.

The output of the show standby command also tells us that the HSRP speakers are sending Hellos every 3 seconds, with a 10-second holdtime. These values can be changed with the standby command, but HSRP speakers in the same group should have the same timers. You can even tie down the hello time to the millisecond, but it's doubtful you'll ever need to do that.

R3(config-if)#standby 5 timers ?
<1-254> Hello interval in seconds
msec Specify hello interval in milliseconds

R3(config-if)#standby 5 timers 4 ?
<5-255> Hold time in seconds

R3(config-if)#standby 5 timers 4 12

Another important HSRP skill is knowing how to change the Active router assignment. I'll show you how to do that, and how to configure HSRP interface tracking, in the next part of my CCNP / BCMSN exam tutorial!


Chris Bryant
CCIE #12933
www.thebryantadvantage.com

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